although the variety of outdoor sports is very wide, professional outdoor sportswear such as assault suits are mainly for alpine sports such as mountaineering and skiing. in addition to the physical and technical requirements of the participants, outdoor sports also require outdoor clothing to adapt to the harsh weather and complex geographical environment to ensure the personal safety of the athletes.
although there is no essential difference between outdoor sportswear and homewear, due to the two characteristics of outdoor and sports, the requirements for clothing are relatively strict and demanding: outdoor sports have large calories and sweat evaporation, requiring good heat dissipation and breathability. in the wild, it is inevitable to encounter wind and rain and fog. the clothing should have certain waterproof performance. outdoor sports hope to minimize the load, the clothing should be as light as possible, the wind is strong in the wild, the mountain is cold, the wind and warmth performance is high, the outdoor washing conditions are limited, and the antibacterial, deodorant and anti-staining of the clothing staining requirements are high.
in the field of rock climbing and forestry, the garments are required to have good tensile and tear resistance. these performance requirements are very demanding from the perspective of textile technology, and even many indicators are mutually contradictory. any single natural or chemical fiber can't meet these requirements, and can only achieve these functions through the combination of multiple fibers and multi-channel chemical finishing.
although warmth is closely related to the thickness of the fabric, outdoor sports do not allow the garment to be too heavy, so it is necessary to keep warm and light to meet the special requirements of outdoor sportswear. the most common method is to add a special ceramic powder containing chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, etc., especially a nano-scale fine ceramic powder, which can absorb visible light such as sunlight and convert it into a synthetic fiber spinning solution such as polyester. the heat energy can also reflect the far-infrared rays emitted by the human body, so it has excellent heat preservation and heat storage properties. of course, the far-infrared ceramic powder, the binder and the cross-linking agent can also be formulated into a finishing agent, the woven fabric is coated, and then dried and baked to make the nano-ceramic powder adhere to the fabric surface and the yarn. between. the finishing agent emits far-infrared rays with a wavelength of 8 to 14 μm, and also has health functions such as inhibition of bacteria, deodorization, and promotion of blood circulation.
in addition, according to the principle of bionics, the structure of the polar bear hair is made into a porous hollow shape, so that the fiber contains a large amount of non-circulating air, and the outer part is spirally curled to maintain the bulkiness, and the condition of ensuring the lightness of the texture can be ensured. it plays a good role in heat preservation. of course, it is one of the most traditional warm-up measures to make clothes or even fabrics into double or even three layers to increase the number of non-circulating air layers.
2, waterproof and moisture permeability:
the sports will emit a lot of sweat, and the outdoor will inevitably encounter wind and rain. this is a contradiction in itself: it is necessary to prevent rain and snow from getting wet, and to release the sweat from the body in time. fortunately, the human body emits water vapor in a single molecule state, while rain and snow are liquid water droplets in a concentrated state, and their volume varies greatly. in addition, liquid water has a characteristic called surface tension, which is the characteristic of gathering its own volume. the water we see on the lotus leaf is a granular water droplet instead of a flat water stain. because the surface of the lotus leaf has a layer of waxy hair tissue, the water droplets cannot spread and penetrate on the waxy hair due to the surface tension. if you dissolve a drop of detergent or detergent into the water droplets, the water droplets will immediately disintegrate and spread on the lotus leaf as the detergent can greatly reduce the surface tension of the liquid. the waterproof and moisture permeable garment utilizes the surface tension characteristic of water, and the surface tension of the reinforced fabric is coated on the fabric with a layer of ptfe (the same chemical composition as the ptfe of the "corrosion-resistant fiber" ptfe). the chemical coating allows the water droplets to be tightened as much as possible without spreading and wetting the surface of the fabric so that it does not penetrate the pores in the fabric. at the same time, the coating is porous, and water vapor in a single molecule state can be smoothly transmitted to the surface of the fabric through the capillary channel between the fibers.
if you stop and rest in the wild after a large amount of exercise, it may be because the outside temperature is low and the sweat cannot escape in time to form water droplets on the inner layer of the clothes, which makes people feel very uncomfortable. this is called " condensation" phenomenon. there is a special moisture permeable finishing process called “low condensation”, which uses polyurethane (pu) and hydrophilic nano-ceramic powder to coat the fabric and absorb it when the body evaporates a lot of sweat. more sweat vapor, thus avoiding the phenomenon that the water vapor inside the clothes exceeds the saturated vapor pressure and is converted into water droplets.
in addition to the way of thinking from fibers and coatings, it is also possible to absorb moisture perspiration on the fabric structure. for example, a two-layer structure is adopted, the inner layer of the body is made of hydrophobic fibers, and the outer layer is made of hydrophilic fibers, so that the sweat can be transferred from the skin to the inner layer fibers by capillary action, and then the outer layer is hydrophilic. the binding force between the fiber and the water molecule is stronger than that of the inner layer, and the water molecule is again transferred from the inner layer of the fabric to the outer layer and finally released into the atmosphere.
3, antibacterial and odor resistance:
due to the characteristics of exercise, sweat and sebaceous glands are secreted in large amounts. in outdoor conditions, it is impossible to change clothes frequently. under suitable temperature and humidity conditions, microorganisms multiply, causing an indecent odor and causing itching. therefore, regular outdoor sportswear is finished with antibacterial and deodorant chemicals. the finishing route is generally to immobilize the organic quaternary ammonium type, the imidazoline type surfactant or the heavy metal ions such as silver and copper with a bactericidal action on the fiber through a resin and a cross-linking agent to have a certain washing durability. of course, an important principle in the selection of fungicides must be non-toxic or low-toxic, otherwise it will be the end. in recent years, japan has made a lot of research on the research of natural antibacterial finishing agents, such as aloe vera, wormwood, alfalfa, rose and other bactericidal aromatic oil extracts, which are coated in porous organic microcapsules or porous. the ceramic powder adheres to the fabric and is fixed by cross-linking with the resin, and the fungicide is slowly released by mechanical action such as friction and backlog to achieve the purpose of durable antibacterial finishing. this kind of natural antibacterial agent is not only non-toxic and harmless, but also has certain health care functions, which should be the development direction of antibacterial finishing. however, since the means for fixing the antibacterial agent is currently limited, the antibacterial property of the antibacterial agent is not good enough, and the antibacterial property is lowered once per washing, and generally disappears after several dozen times.
dow corning aegis anti-mold antibacterial agent uses molecular bonding to distribute eighteen long carbon chains evenly on the surface of the fabric, and integrates with the fabric fibers. after that, it relies on physical action for sterilization, unlike other sterilization by chemical action. to achieve a permanent antibacterial effect.
4, anti-fouling and easy to remove:
outdoor sports often walk through the muddy and moist forests, and it is inevitable that the clothes are dirty. this requires that the appearance of the clothing should be as low as possible and stained, and once it is stained, it should be easy to wash and remove. changing the surface properties of the fiber greatly increases the surface tension of the fabric, making it difficult for oil and other stains to penetrate into the interior of the fabric. slight stains can be removed with a damp cloth, and heavier stains are easier to clean. anti-fouling finishing can not only prevent the pollution of oil pollution, but also has the performance of waterproof and moisture permeability. it is generally called “three-proof finishing” (water repellent, oil repellent, anti-fouling), and it is a relatively practical and effective advanced chemical finishing method. it is commonly used in the finishing of clothing and fabrics for backpacks, shoes and tents.
5, anti-static and anti-radiation finishing
mountaineering is the core of outdoor sports. in addition to the original jungle, the high altitude plateau above 3,000 meters above sea level is low in air pressure, water is easy to volatilize, the environment is generally dry, and outdoor clothing is basically made of chemical fiber fabric, so static electricity the problem is more prominent. the hazard of static electricity is generally characterized by easy pilling of clothes, easy exposure to dust and dirt, electric shock and stickiness close to the skin, and the like. if you carry sophisticated electronic instruments such as electronic compasses, altitude meters, gps navigators, etc., you may be disturbed by the static electricity of the clothing and cause errors, which will have serious consequences.
any object rubbing against each other may generate static electricity, but only dry insulating objects will accumulate static electricity and cause harm. therefore, the best antistatic fabrics are of course woven from natural fibers, but as mentioned above, pure natural fibers are difficult to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports, and even natural fibers, in very dry environments, lack of water molecules. and the phenomenon of static electricity. there are two main ways of antistatic finishing of fabrics: one is to weave the wire into the fabric, and make the conductive fabric (also the electromagnetic wave shielding fabric and the radiation protection fabric), and the static electricity generated by the friction is transmitted to the outside world in time. . however, this fabric is not suitable for sportswear, mainly because it is not soft enough and not comfortable enough. another method is to use a block polyether, polyacrylate and other antistatic agents with moisture absorption effect, and apply a chemical film on the surface of the fabric to adsorb water molecules to form a continuous conductive water film on the surface of the fabric. electrostatic conduction is dissipated.
due to the relatively thin atmosphere in the high-altitude area, the blocking and filtering effect on ultraviolet rays is greatly reduced, and the intensity of ultraviolet rays is much higher than that in low-altitude areas. ultraviolet rays can effectively promote the production of vitamins and have a bactericidal effect, but excessively intense radiation can cause damage to human skin. the penetration of ultraviolet light is very strong, and generally the fiber fabric does not completely shield its illumination. uv-shielding agents such as nano-scale inorganic titanium oxide (tio2) and nano-zinc oxide (zno), and ultraviolet absorbers such as organic salicylic acid, cyanoacrylate, benzophenone and benzotriazole, using resin the method of cross-linking is fixed on the fabric to provide a certain anti-radiation effect.
it can be said that outdoor sportswear represents the latest cutting-edge technology in the development of textile science today. this is also an important reason why seemingly inconspicuous mountaineering wear and trousers are hundreds of thousands or even thousands of dollars. brand value and functional style and other factors). although the price is not low, but a set of professional outdoor sportswear that integrates wind, breathable, moisture-proof, warm-proof, anti-radiation and other properties, for a climber, sometimes may have the same meaning as life! however, due to the diversity, complexity and unpredictability of outdoor sports, the functions of clothing may have many different requirements depending on the environment and the way of movement. therefore, in the current science and technology, outdoor sportswear the overall performance is still difficult to achieve the perfection.